In today’s rapidly changing and competitive microfinance industry, most institutions are looking hard at the potential benefits to be derived from Information and Communications Technology (ICT). This focus has taken on even greater urgency as institutions struggle with the issue of sustainable rural finance and the challenges of outreach and scale. In recent years, a significant amount of institutional capital and donor funds has been invested in overcoming technology and infrastructure barriers. Much has been written about the use of personal digital assistants (PDAs), point of sale (POS)/smart cards, automated teller machines (ATMs), and mobile phones. To date, the results of technology investments in the microfinance industry have been mixed. Full understanding of the problems in implementing ICT requires examination of the environment and institutions themselves, as well as the technology.