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LEAP III Egypt Private Sector Landscape Assessment

Egypt’s private sector is highly developed, employing approximately 70 percent of the country’s labor force. A dynamic and young population, large market size, and access to important foreign markets drive Egypt’s enormous economic potential. Despite this progress, significant obstacles dampen the country’s ability to recognize its potential for economic growth. Most micro-, small-, and medium-sized enterprises (MSMEs) operate informally, and they contribute less than 30 percent to gross domestic product (GDP). The country has a complex and burdensome legal and regulatory system.

LEAP III Timor-Leste Customs Sector Assessment

To build upon the customs modernization reforms currently being undertaken by the Customs Authority in Timor-Leste, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) Learning, Evaluation, and Analysis Project (LEAP III), on behalf of USAID/Timor-Leste, assessed the current operational and legal environment within the customs sector. The review sought, inter alia, to determine the Authority’s adherence to international norms and best practices, with a particular focus on trade facilitation.

Analysis of the North American Jewelry Market

USAID’s Commercially Viable Conflict-Free Gold Project, known locally as “Zahabu Safi” (Clean Gold), is a five-year program, implemented in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) by Global Communities and Levin Sources. The project aims to establish a responsible, commercially viable and conflict-free ASM gold supply chain from eastern DRC. A key objective for achieving the project’s vision is to increase demand for and co-investment in responsibly sourced ASM gold from eastern DRC.

Dispute Landscape & Market Governance

This report investigates how frequently disputes occur, their underlying causes, and avenues for recourse function vis-a-vis a market's governance structure.

Scaling Impact: Cambodia Ex-Post Assessment

LEO is researching a diversity of models that implementing agencies are using to solve the issue of linking smallholders to input and output markets. The research focuses on the principles and conditions that made these models effective.

Smallholder Commercialization: Processes, Determinants and Impact

This paper by the International Livestock Research Institute reviews the available literature on smallholder commercialization. Of particular interest, the paper discusses the arguments for smallholders to scale-up and commercialize existing food crops versus beginning to produce completely new crops specifically for sale. The production of high-value crops typically generates greater returns for producers, but also typically implies greater risks and barriers to entry. In general, commercialization is found to be positive for families, though the impacts vary.