Lessons Learned on MSE Upgrading in Value Chains (microREPORT)
1. Process upgrading is an increase in production efficiency, resulting in either greater output for the same level of inputs or the same level of output from fewer inputs.
2. Product upgrading is a qualitative improvement that makes the product more desirable to consumers.
3. Functional upgrading is the entry of a firm into a new, higher value-added level in the value chain.
4. Channel upgrading is the entry of a firm into a pathway that leads to a new, higher value-added end market in the value chain.